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Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الجمعة 11 ديسمبر 2009, 23:04

Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




This is a timeline of notable events in the Muslim presence in Iberia, which started with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.

Contents


Conquest (710–756)

Further information: Umayyad conquest of Hispania


The Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba (756–929)


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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الجمعة 11 ديسمبر 2009, 23:06

The Umayyad Caliphate (929–1031)




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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الجمعة 11 ديسمبر 2009, 23:13

Political fragmentation (1031 - 1130)
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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الجمعة 11 ديسمبر 2009, 23:14


  • 1087 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes the fortress of Aledo in the territory of Murcia, blocking the route from Seville and Granada to the eastern provinces.

  • 1088 - Yusuf ibn Tashfin arrives back in Algeciras (May-June) and is joined by al-Mutamid of Seville and Abd Allah of Granada, plus support from Almería and Murcia (but not the Emirs). The combined army besieges Aledo for 4 months, but Yusuf ibn Tashfin returns to Africa unsuccessful.
  • 1090 - Yusuf ibn Tashfin returns to the Peninsula for the third time, takes over the kingdoms of Granada and Málaga in September and is back in Africa by the end of the year. However, this time his nephew Sir ibn Abi Bakr is left to continue the conquest. Between 30 April 1090 and 8 May 1090, Christian troops enter Santarém, Lisbon and Sintra. These were recently ceded by the Al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz in return for protection from the Almoravids.

  • 1091 The Almoravids led by Muhammad ibn al-Hajj take Córdoba and the Guadalquivir valley early in the year, and then defeat a Castilian force under Alva Fañez who were attempting to aid Al-Mutamid of Seville. In September Seville surrenders without much of a fight to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Subsequently other Almoravids armies take Aledo and Almería. Ronda also falls and the Almoravid commander Garur executes al-Radi (the son al-Mutamid of Seville).

  • 1092 - With El Cid away in Zaragoza, the Valencians under the qadi Ibn Jahhaf and supported by a small Almoravid force, drive the Castilian garrison out and execute their Emir al-Qadir. Ibn Jahhaf promptly sets himself up at Emir and starts negotiating with both El Cid and the Almoravids.

  • 1093 - An Almoravid army (Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahiim) approaches Valencia but then retreats without striking a blow.

  • 1095 - The Almoravids take Santarém.
  • 1097 - El Cid defeats Almoravid (Ali ibn al-Hajj) at Bairen south of Valencia.

    • Almoravid (Muhammad ibn al-Hajj) defeat Castilians (Alfonso VI) at Consuegra. El Cid's son, Diego, is one of the dead.
    • Almoravid (Muhammad ibn Aisha) defeat Castilians (Alva Fañez) at Cuenca before ravaging the lands of Valencia.
    • Yusuf ibn Tashfin assumes the title of Amir al Muslimin (Prince of the Muslims).

  • 1099 - The Almoravids besiege El Cid's Valencia, where he dies on 10 July 1099.
  • 1100 Molina falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter
  • 1102- The followers of El Cid leave Valencia and the Muslims occupy the Peninsula as far as Zaragoza.

  • 1103 - Ali, the brother of the Almoravid governor of Granada, Muhammad ibn al-Hajj, is killed in battle with the Castilians near Talavera.
  • 1105 - The Almohads, founded by Ibn Tumart, began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities. Most specifically, the Almohads were opposed to anthropomorphisms which had slipped into Iberian Islam. Ibn Tumart's successor, Abd al-Mu'min, turned the movement against non-Muslims, specifically Jews and Christians. Sweeping across North Africa and into Muslim Iberia, the zealous Almohads initiate riots and persecutions of both Muslims and non-Muslims. In some towns Jews and Christians are given the choice of conversion, exile, or death.
  • 1106 - Yusuf ibn Tashfin dies and his son, Ali, takes over the Almoravid empire.
  • 1108 - The Almoravids under Tamim ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin, the brother of the ruler; another general is Muhammad ibn Fatima, the grandson of Sir ibn Abi Bakr) take the small town of Uclés to the east of Toledo, but a ridge top fortress holds out. Alfonso VI of Castile sends a relieving army under Alvar Fañez. The Almoravids decisively beat the Castilians and many leaders are killed, including Sancho, Alfonso's only son (by Zaïda, a Muslim princess) and heir. Subsequently, the Almoravids pretend to withdraw then launch a successful surprise attack on the castle. As a result the Christians abandon Cuenca and Huete.

    • Almoravid (Tamim ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin) storm Talavera on the Tagus to the west of Toledo. The country to the north and south of Toledo is ravaged and the city unsuccessfully besieged for a month. Alvar Fañez leads the defence. Emir Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin joined this year's Jihad but does not mention him in the actions.

  • 1110 - Al-Mustain of Zaragoza leads an expedition against the Christians, but is killed at Valtierra. His son, Imad al-Din, fails to establish his rule and the Almoravid (ibn al-Hajj) marches in (30 May 1110).
  • 1111 - Almoravids led by Sir ibn Abi Bakr occupy Lisbon and Santarém in the west. These cities were occupied by the Almoravids in 1094-95 this suggests a fluctuating border in Portugal.

  • 1112 - By this time the Aragonese have taken Huesca. Almoravid (ibn al-Hajj) raids into Aragonese territory and reaches the foothills of the Pyrenees.
  • 1114 - A major Almoravid expedition (ibn al-Hajj from Zaragoza and Ibn Aisha of Valencia) raids into Catalonia. The army ravages Christian territory but is ambushed on its return and both Almoravid generals are killed. The Catalans under Count Ramon Berengar III take over the Balearic Islands upon the death of Emir Mubashir ibn Sulayman of Majorca.

  • 1115 - The new Almoravid governor of Zaragoza, Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahim ibn Tifilwit, lays siege to Barcelona for 20 days. The Almoravids withdraw when Count Ramon Berengar III returns from Majorca. The Almoravid fleet takes the Balearic Islands. The Almoravid general and governor of Granada Mazdali ibn Tilankan dies in battle this year. He led expeditions against the Christians from 1111, so he might have led an expedition separate from those of Abu Bakr and the fleet. His son, Muhammad, governor of Córdoba, also dies in battle this year (against the Castilians), so it may have been the same expedition.
  • 1117 - Almoravids under Emir Ali ibn Yusuf himself take Coimbra, but abandon the city after a few days.
  • 1118 - Alfonso I of Aragon takes Saragossa from the Muslims. Settlers in the reconquered no-man's lands of Castile are granted fueros, special rights.

    • The Aragonese led Alfonso I the Battler seize Zaragoza and most of the central lands of the Ebro. The siege of Zaragoza lasts from 22 May 1118 to 18 December 1118. The garrison has 20 mangonels and is supported by a determined militia. As a result of a plea for help of 3 December the Almoravid governor of Valencia sends a relief force, but this is too small to help. Lleida only remains in Muslim hands because it is tributary to Barcelona.
    • Zaragoza falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter

  • 1120 - Alfonso I of Aragon decisively defeats an Almoravid army including many Andalusian volunteers at Cutanda in summer.
  • 1121 - The Aragonese take Calatayud. The Cordobans rebel against the Almoravids, and drive the governor and his troops from the city. The Emir Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin leads an army from Africa to suppress the rebellion. The Almoravids besiege the city, and persuade the Cordobans to lay down their arms.
  • 1122 -Aragonese take Daroca.
  • 1125 - In September, Alfonso I of Aragon sets out south with an army of 4,000 knights. He travels down the east coat, bypasses the cities and ravages the countryside. He reaches Guadix unopposed in December.
  • 1126 - The Almoravids deport Christians to Morocco.

    • Alfonso I of Aragon defeats the Almoravids at Arinzul near Lucena. After symbolically fishing at Motril on the south coast, Alfonso returns home undefeated.

  • 1129 - Alfonso I of Aragon defeats an Almoravid army led by Ali ibn Majjuz, the governor of Seville deep inside Valencian territory. This is probably at Cullera or Alcala near Alcira.
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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الجمعة 11 ديسمبر 2009, 23:17

Decline and submission to Christian rule (1130–1481)

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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الجمعة 11 ديسمبر 2009, 23:19

Castile-Aragón conquers the kingdom of Granada (1481–1491)


Aftermath (1492–1616)

  • 2 January 1492 - The Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, take over Granada.
  • 1492-1507 - The remaining Moors who want to stay in Spain form an alliance with the towns of Abarán, Ulea, Eyes, and Ricote and request to become Catholic and abandon the Muslim religion. They request King Fernando to grant them permission to convert their mosques back to Christian churches. The king then appeals to the reigning Pope Julius II (nephew of Sixtus IV) to grant the aspirations of these new Christians. These former Moorish converts to Christianity will come to be known as the Moriscos.
  • 1496 - All Moors are expelled from Portugal.
  • 1502 - After various rebellions, the Moors are deemed in violation of their surrender terms and are forcibly expelled from Granada along with the Jews, who are widely perceived to have collaborated with the Moors against the Christians during Muslim rule. Muslims who convert rather than be expelled are known as moriscos, and Jews who convert as marranos.
  • 1516 - King Charles I, the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, rises to the throne of both Castile and Aragon. With the conquest of Granada and Iberian Navarre, the modern nation of Spain is formed.
  • 1519–1522 - Revolt of the Germanies of Kingdom of Valencia. In it, the rebels murder many Mudéjars and forcibly baptize and convert the rest. The rebels had been armed to take up coastal defense against the Barbary pirates, and saw the Muslims as both collaborators with the raiding overseas Muslims and competitors for jobs.
  • 1526 - After convening a council to examine the problem, King Charles I declares that the forced conversions of the Muslims of Valencia and Aragon were valid, because they could have chosen death rather than convert.
  • 1568 - Rebellion of the Alpujarras. After King Philip II introduces laws prohibiting Moorish culture, the remaining population of Moors who had nominally converted to Christianity in order to remain in Spain , then known as Moriscos, revolt under the leadership of Aben Humeya in Granada. The rebellion is suppressed, in 1571, by John of Austria, Philip II's half-brother, and the Moriscos are deported to different parts of the northern half of the Iberian peninsula.
  • 1609 - Expulsion of the Moriscos - King Philip III issues the Act of Expulsion for the entire remaining Moriscos population, claiming that they appealed to the Ottoman Empire for military intervention in Spain.[2] They are viewed by some as a fifth column trying to rebuild the Muslim occupation in the Peninsula.
  • 1616 - The last remaining Moriscos in the Iberian peninsula are expelled.


Notes

  1. ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  2. ^ Lynch, John (1969). Spain under the Habsburgs. (vol. 2). Oxford, England: Alden Mowbray Ltd.. pp. p. 42–51.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presence_in_the_Iberian_peninsula
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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة

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