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Ibn al-Baitar - ابن البيطار

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Ibn al-Baitar - ابن البيطار

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الخميس 18 يوليو 2013, 20:20


Ibn al-Baitar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Ibn al-Bayṭār al-Mālaqī, Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad (or justIbn al-Baytar, Arabic: ابن البيطار‎)  (1197–1248) was a Muslim scientist, botanist, pharmacistand physician who worked during the Islamic Golden Age and Arab Agricultural Revolution. His main contribution was to systematically record the discoveries made by Islamic physicians in the Middle Ages, which added between 300 and 400 types of medicine to the one thousand previously known since antiquity.[1]
[th]Al-Baitar[/th][th]Born[/th][th]Died[/th][th]Nationality[/th][th]Fields[/th][th]Known for[/th][th]Influences[/th][th]Influenced[/th]

Al-Baitar
1197
Málaga
1248
Damascus
Andalusian
Botanist, Scientist, Pharmacist,Physician
Scientific classification Oncology
Al-Ghafiqi, Maimonides
Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, Amir Dowlat,Andrea Alpago[1]













































[ltr]Biography
Born in the Andalusian city of Málaga at the end of the 12th century, he learned botany from the Málagan botanist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati with whom he started collecting plants in and around Spain.[2] Al-Nabati was responsible for developing an early scientific method, introducing empirical and experimental techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and separating unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations. Such an approach was thus adopted by Ibn al-Baitar.[3] (The statue depicted is in Benalmadena Costa and the inscription states that al-Baytar was born in Benalmadena).
[/ltr]
[ltr]
In 1219, Ibn al-Baitar left Málaga to travel in the Islamic world to collect plants. He travelled from the northern coast of Africa as far as Anatolia. The major stations he visited includeBugia, Constantinople, Tunis, Tripoli, Barqa and Adalia.
[/ltr]
[ltr]
After 1224, he entered the service of al-Kamil, an Ayyubid Sultan, and was appointed chief herbalist. In 1227 al-Kamil extended his domination to Damascus, and Ibn al-Baitar accompanied him there which provided him an opportunity to collect plants in Syria. His researches on plants extended over a vast area including Arabia and Palestine. He died in Damascus in 1248.
[/ltr]
[ltr]
Al-Baytar used the name "snow of China" (Arabic: ثلج الصين‎ thalj al-Sin) to describe saltpetre while writing about gunpowder.[4][5]
[/ltr]
[ltr]
Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fi-mufradāt al-adwiya wa al-aghdhiya
Ibn al-Baitar’s major contribution is Kitāb Al-jāmiʿ fi-mufradāt al-adwiya wa al-aghdhiya (Arabic: كتاب الجامع في مفردات الأدوية والأغذية‎), which greatly influenced the works of later writers, especially in the Near East, in and out of the Islamic world.[1] 
[/ltr]


[ltr]It was a pharmacopoeia(pharmaceutical encyclopedia) listing 1,400 plants, foods, and drugs. The book also contains references to 150 other previous Arabic authors as well as 20 previous Greek authors.[6][/ltr]
[ltr]
Ibn al-Baitar also provides detailed chemical information on the Rosewater and Orangewater production. He mentions: The scentedShurub (Syrup) was often extracted from flowers and rare leaves, by means of using hot oils and fat, they were later cooled in cinnamonoil. The oils used were also extracted from sesame and olives. Essential oil was produced by joining various retorts, the steam from these retorts condensed, combined and its scented droplets were used as perfume and mixed to produce the most costly medicines.
Kitāb al-mughnī fī al-adwiya al-mufrada
Ibn Al-Baitar’s second major work is Kitāb al-mughnī fī al-adwiya al-mufradaa, an encyclopedia of Islamic medicine which incorporates his knowledge of plants used extensively for the treatment of various ailments, including diseases related to the head, ear, eye, etc.[6]
Other works
Mīzān al-ṭabīb.
[/ltr]

  • Risāla fi’l-aghdhiya wa’l-adwiya.

  • Maqāla fi’l-laymūnA treatise on Lemon, have also been attributed to Ibn Jumac; translated to Latin by Andrea Alpago.[1]

  • Tafsīr kitāb Diyusqūrīdis, a commentary on the first four books of Dioscorides.




[ltr]
See also
Islamic science
[/ltr]

  • Islamic medicine

  • Muslim Agricultural Revolution

  • Islamic scholars




[ltr]Notes

[/ltr]

  1. a b c d Vernet 2008.

  2. ^ Saad & Said 2011.

  3. ^ Huff, Toby (2003). The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West. Cambridge University Press. p. 218. ISBN 0-521-52994-8

  4. ^ James Riddick Partington (1960). [url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fNZBSqd2cToC&pg=PA22&dq=The+first+definite+mention+of+saltpetre+in+an+Arabic+work+is+that+in+al-Baytar+(d.+1248),+written+towards+the+end+of+his+life,+where+it+is+called+"snow+of+China."+Al-Baytar+was+a+Spanish+Arab&hl=en&ei=IQbUTs7uGene0QGKkr2bBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The first definite mention of saltpetre in an Arabic work is that in al-Baytar (d. 1248)%2C written towards the end of his life%2C where it is called "snow of China." Al-Baytar was a Spanish]A history of Greek fire and gunpowder[/url] (reprint, illustrated ed.). JHU Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-8018-5954-9. Retrieved 2011-11-28. "The first definite mention of saltpetre in an Arabic work is that in al-Baytar (died 1248), written towards the end of his life, where it is called "snow of China." Al-Baytar was a Spanish Arab, although he travelled a good deal and lived for a time in Egypt."

  5. ^ Peter Watson (2006). [url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CVNoJydnGAoC&pg=PA304&dq=The+Arabic+term+for+saltpetre+is+'Chinese+snow'+while+the+Persian+usage+is+'Chinese+salt'.28&hl=en&ei=b6vmToLRM8jd0QHeyeTlCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The Arabic term for saltpetre is 'Chinese snow' while the Persian usage is 'Chinese]Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud[/url] (illustrated, annotated ed.). HarperCollins. p. 304.ISBN 0-06-093564-2. Retrieved 2011-11-28. "The first use of a metal tube in this context was made around 1280 in the wars between the Song and the Mongols, where a new term, chong, was invented to describe the new horror...Like paper, it reached the West via the Muslims, in this case the writings of the Andalusian botanist Ibn al-Baytar, who died in Damascus in 1248. The Arabic term for saltpetre is 'Chinese snow' while the Persian usage is 'Chinese salt'.28"

  6. a b Russell McNeil, Ibn al-Baitar, Malaspina University-College.




[ltr]
References

[/ltr]

  • Saad, Bashar; Said, Omar (2011). [url=http://books.google.de/books?id=-WQVF8nhKf4C&pg=PT68&lpg=PT68&dq=Abu+al-Abbas+al-Nabati&source=bl&ots=EomucmgexJ&sig=jZ3fywDvYuH661y15qg14HA66kY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9DZJT_-FCqqFsALNq43rCA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Abu al-Abbas]"3.3"[/url]. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons.ASIN B005526C6O.

  • Vernet, J. (2008) [1970-80]. "Ibn Al-Bayṭār Al-Mālaqī, Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com.




[ltr]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_al-Baitar
[/ltr]



 


عدل سابقا من قبل د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الخميس 18 يوليو 2013, 20:29 عدل 1 مرات
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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

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رد: Ibn al-Baitar - ابن البيطار

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الخميس 18 يوليو 2013, 20:27

Ibn Al-Bayṭār Al-Mālaqī, Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography | 2008 | 700+ words | Copyright
Ibn Al-Bayṭār Al-Mālaqī, Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad
b. Málaga, Spain, ca. 1190; d. Damascus, Syria, 1248)
pharmacology, botany.
Ibn al-Bayṭār may have belonged to the Bayṭār family of Málaga, on which considerable information is available in the biographical dictionaries of the period. His Hispano-Roman ancestry, suggested by Francisco Javier Simonet, has not been proved. He studied in Seville, and while there he gathered herbs with his teachers Abu’l-ʿAbbās al-Nabātī, ʿAbdallāh ibn Ṣāliḥ, and Abu’l-Hajjāj. We know he preferred to study the works of al-Ghāfiqī, al-Zahrāwī, al-Idrīsī, Dioscorides, and Galen.
Around 1220 Ibn al-Bayṭār migrated to the Orient, crossing North Africa and possibly sailing from there to Asia Minor and Syria in 1224. He finally settled in Cairo, where the Ayyūbid Sultan al-Kāmil named him chief herbalist, a post he continued to occupy under the sultan’s successor, al-Ṣāliḥ. He traveled sporadically through Arabia. Palestine, Syria, and part of Iraq, accompanied most of the time by his disciples. The most outstanding of his followers was Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, who in his ʿUyūn has left us a euolgistic passage about his teacher.
Ibn al-Bayṭār’s Al-Mughnī fi’l-adwiya al-mufrada is dedicated to Sultan al-Ṣāliḥ and deals with the simple medicines appropriate for various illnesses. Al-Jāmiʿ li-mufradāt al-adwiya wa’l-aghdhiya enumerates alphabetically some 1,400 animal, vegetable, and mineral medicines, relying on his own observations as well as some 150 authorities, including, besides those already mentioned, al-Rāzī and Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna). The main contribution of Ibn al-Bayṭār was the systematization of the discoveries made by Arabs during the Middle Ages, which added between 300 and 400 medicines to the thousand known since antiquity. One must also point out his preoccupation with synonymy (technical equivalents between Arabic and Persian, Berber, Greek, Latin, Arab dialects, and Romance, taken in part from the Sharḥ asmāʾ al-ʿuqqār by Maimonides, which he knew well because he had translated it).
Meyerhof and Sobhy have cast doubt on the originality of this work, suspecting that it is a plagiarism of the pharmacopoeia of al-Ghāfiqī, which Ibn al Bayṭār quotes more than 200 times. This hypothesis is difficult to prove, because the concept of intellectual property was very different among the medieval Arabs from what it is now and because al-Ghāfiqī’s work has been preserved only in a résumé by Barhebraeus. The Jāmiʿ had great influence upon later pharmacopoeias in the Near East, both in and out of the Islamic world—as, for example, on the Armenian Amir Dowlat. On the other hand, his influence in the West was less, for the era of great translations from Arabic to Latin ended in the middle of the thirteenth century. Nevertheless, Andrea Alpago used the Jāmiʿ in his works on Ibn Sīnā, and later it was the object of attention by such Arabists as William Portel and Antoine Galland, who published both a résumé and a manuscript in French.
The other works of Ibn al-Bayṭār have received much less attention than the aforementioned two. They are Mīzān al-ṭabīb; Risāla fi’l-aghdhiya wa’l-adwiya; Maqāla fi’l-laymūn, also attributed to Ibn Jumac, which exists in a Latin version by Alpago; and Tafsīr kitāb Diyusqūrīdis, a commentary on Dioscorides, a manuscript of which has recently been found. In it he inventories 550 medicines that are to be found in the first four books of Dioscorides, and frequently gives synonyms for them.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
I. Original Works. An inventory of the MSS is in C. Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Literature, I, 492, and Supp. I, 896; and Albert Dietrich,Medicinalia Arabica (Göttingen, 1966). p. 147. Ibn al-Bayṭār’s second work, theal-Jāmiʿ, is not available in a good edition, although there is a defective German translation by J. Sontheimer, 2 vols. (Stuttgart, 1840–1842), and a very useful French edition by Lucien Leclerc in the series Notices et Extraits, XXIII, XXV, and XXVI (Paris, 1877–1883).
II. Secondary Literature. Arabic sources for the biography of Ibn al-Bayṭār may be found in César E. Dubler, “Ibn al-Bayṭār en armenio,” in Al-Andalus21(1956), 125–130; Max Meyerhof, “Esquisse d’histoire de la pharmacologie et botanique chez les musulmans d’Espagne,” ibid., 3 (1935), 31–33; George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, II. pt. 2 (Baltimore, 1931), 663–664; and Ziriklī. Aʿlām, IV (Cairo, n.d.), 192.
A résumé of the work by al-Ghāfiqī may be found in The Abridged Version of the “Book of Simple Drugs” of... al-Ghāfiqī by Gregorius Abu-l-Farag, (Barhebraeus). Max Meyerhof and G. P. Sobhy, eds., fasc. I (Cairo, 1932), 32–33. An article on the Tafsīr kitāb Diyusqūrīdis is M. al-Shihābī, in Majallat Maʿhad al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʿArabiyya3 , no. 1 (1957), 105–112.
J. Vernet

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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Ibn al-Baitar - ابن البيطار

مُساهمة من طرف د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر في الخميس 18 يوليو 2013, 20:30


 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Ibn_al-Baytar.JPG/450px-Ibn_al-Baytar.JPG
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د. جمال بن عمار الأحمر
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية
رئيس منظمة الشعب الأندلسي العالمية

الجنس : ذكر
العمر : 57
تاريخ الميلاد : 22/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/05/2009
عدد المساهمات : 2916
نقاط الشكر على الجدية الأندلسية : 3
نشاطه في منظمة ش الأندلسي ع : 4851
العمل/الترفيه : أستاذ جامعي. مؤسس في حركة إسلامية قوية في نهاية السبعينيات. وسياسي قديم. ومرشح برلماني سابق

http://www.andalus-woap.org

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

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